You can find Steve's publication history on Google Scholar here (control-click and it will open as a new tab)
Steve's ORCID iD is 0000-0003-4757-7125
Vu, H., K. Wieski, S. C. Pennings. Interactions between ecosystem engineers drive creek formation in sinking salt marshes. In press, Ecology.
Zengel, S., J. Weaver, S. C. Pennings, B. Silliman, D. R. Deis, C. L. Montague, N. Rutherford, Z. Nixon and A. R. Zimmerman. 2016. Five years of Deepwater Horizon oil spill effects on marsh periwinkles (Littoraria irrorata). Marine Ecology Progress Series. DOI 10.3354/meps11827.
Li, S. and S. C. Pennings. 2016. Disturbance in Georgia salt marshes: variation across space and time. Ecosphere 7(10):e01487. DOI: 10.1002/ecs2.1487.
Zengel, S., S.C. Pennings, B. Silliman, C. Montague, J. Weaver, D.R. Deis, M.O. Krasnec, N. Rutherford, Z. Nixon. 2016. Deepwater Horizon oil spill impacts on salt marsh fiddler crabs (Uca spp.). Estuaries and Coasts 39:1154-1163. DOI 10.1007/s12237-016-0072-6.
Liu, W., Maung-Douglass, K., Strong, D.R., Pennings, S.C. and Zhang, Y. 2016. Geographical variation in vegetative growth and sexual reproduction of the invasive Spartina alterniflora in China. Journal of Ecology 104:173-181.
Zengel, S., C. L. Montague, S. C. Pennings, S. P. Powers, M. Steinhoff, G. Fricano, C. Schlemme, M. Zhang, J. Oehrig, Z. Nixon, S. Rouhani, J. Michel. 2016. Impacts of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill on salt marsh periwinkles (Littoraria irrorata). Environmental Science & Technology 50:643-652. DOI: 10.1021/acs.est.5b04371.
Guo, H., S. A. Chamberlain, E. Elhaik, I. Jalli, A.-R. Lynes, L. Marczak, N. Sabath, A. Vargas, K. Wieski, E. M. Zelig, S. C. Pennings. 2015. Geographic variation in plant community structure of salt marshes: species, functional and phylogenetic perspectives. PLoS ONE 10(5): e0127781. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0127781
Hübner, L., S. C. Pennings and M. Zimmer. 2015. Sex- and habitat-specific movement of an omnivorous semi-terrestrial crab controls habitat connectivity and subsidies: a multi-parameter approach. Oecologia 178:999-1015.
He, Q., M. D. Bertness, J. F. Bruno, B. Li, G. Chen, T. C. Coverdale, A. H. Altieri, J. Bai, T. Sun, S. C. Pennings, J. Liu, P. R. Ehrlich, B. Cui. 2014. Economic development and coastal ecosystem change in China. Scientific Reports 4:5995, DOI: 10.1038/srep05995.
Pennings, S. C., B. D. McCall and L. Hooper-Bui. 2014. Effects of oil spills on terrestrial arthropods in coastal wetlands. Bioscience 64:789-795. DOI:10.1093/biosci/biu118.
Sharitz, R. R., Batzer, D. P. and S. C. Pennings. 2014. Ecology of freshwater and estuarine wetlands: an introduction. In, D. P. Batzer and R. R. Sharitz, eds. Ecology of Freshwater and Estuarine Wetlands. Second edition. University of California Press. In press.
Sharitz, R. R. and S. C. Pennings. 2014. Development of wetland plant communities. In, D. P. Batzer and R. R. Sharitz, eds. Ecology of Freshwater and Estuarine Wetlands. Second edition. University of California Press. In press.
Więski, K. and S. C. Pennings. 2014. Latitudinal variation in resistance and tolerance to herbivory of a salt marsh shrub. Ecography 37:763-769. DOI:10.1111/ecog.00498.
Guo, H., K. Więski, Z. Lan and S. C. Pennings. 2014. Relative influence of deterministic processes on structuring marsh plant communities varies across an abiotic gradient. Oikos 123:173-178.
Więski, K. and S. C. Pennings. 2013. Climate drivers of Spartina alterniflora saltmarsh production in Georgia, USA. Ecosystems. DOI: 10.1007/s10021-013-9732-6.
Ho, C.-K. and S. C. Pennings. 2013. Preference and performance in plant-herbivore interactions across latitude—a study in U.S. Atlantic salt marshes. PLOS One. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0059829.
Guo, H., Y. Zhang, Z. Lan and S. C. Pennings. 2013. Biotic interactions mediate the expansion of black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) into salt marshes under climate change. Global Change Biology 19:2765-2774. DOI: 10.1111/gcb.12221
Schalles, J. F., C. M. Hladik, A. A. Lynes and S. C. Pennings. 2013. Landscape estimates of habitat types, plant biomass, and invertebrate densities in a Georgia salt marsh. Oceanography 26:88-97.
Treplin, M., S. C. Pennings, and M. Zimmer. 2013. Decomposition of leaf litter in a U.S. saltmarsh is driven by dominant species, not species complementarity. Wetlands. 33:83-89. DOI 10.1007/s13157-012-0353-1.
Marczak, L. B., K. Więski, R. F. Denno and S. C. Pennings. 2013. Importance of local versus geographical variation in saltmarsh plant quality for arthropod herbivore communities. Journal of Ecology 101:1169-1182.
Pennings, S. C. 2013. Forging collaborations between ecology and historical ecology. In V. D. Thompson and J. C. Waggoner Jr. (eds.), The archaeology and historical ecology of small scale economies. The University Press of Florida, Gainesville.
Guo, H. and S. C. Pennings. 2012. Post-mortem ecosystem engineering by oysters creates habitat for a rare marsh plant. Oecologia 170:789-798.
McCall, B. D. and S. C. Pennings. 2012. Geographic variation in salt marsh structure and function. Oecolgia 170:777-787.
Ewers, C., A. Beiersdorf, K. Wieski, S. C. Pennings, and M. Zimmer. 2012. Predator/prey-interactions promote decomposition of low-quality detritus. Wetlands. DOI 10.1007/s13157-012-0326-4.
Gough, L., K. L. Gross, Cleland, E. E., C. M. Clark, S. L. Collins, J. E. Fargione, S. C. Pennings and K. N. Suding. 2012. Incorporating clonal growth form clarifies the role of plant height in response to nitrogen addition. Oecologia 169:1053-1062.
Pennings, S. C., M. Alber, C. R. Alexander, M. Booth, A. Burd, W.-J. Cai, C. Craft, C. B. DePratter, D. Di Iorio, C. Hopkinson, S. B. Joye, C. D. Meile, W. S. Moore, B. Silliman, V. Thompson, J. P. Wares. South Atlantic Tidal Wetlands. 2012. Pages 45-61 in A. Baldwin and D. Batzer (eds.), Wetland Habitats of North America: Ecology and Conservation Concerns. University of California Press.
Guo, H. and S. C. Pennings. 2012. Mechanisms mediating plant distributions across estuarine landscapes in a low-latitude tidal estuary. Ecology 93(1):90-100.
McCall, B. D., S. C. Pennings. 2012. Disturbance and recovery of salt marsh arthropod communities following BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill. PLoS ONE 7 (3) e32735. DOI. 10.1371/journal.pone.0032735.
Jimenez, J. M., K. Wieski, L. B. Marczak, C.-K. Ho, S. C. Pennings. 2012. Effects of an omnivorous katydid, salinity, and nutrients on a planthopper-Spartina food web. Estuaries and Coasts 35:475-485.
Cleland, E. E., C. M. Clark, S. L. Collins, J. E. Fargione, L. Gough, K. L. Gross, S. C. Pennings and K. N. Suding. 2011. Patterns of trait convergence and divergence among native and exotic species in herbaceous plant communities are not modified by nitrogen enrichment. Journal of Ecology 99:1327-1338.
Marczak, L. B, C.-K. Ho, K. Wieski, H. Vu, R. F. Denno and S. C. Pennings. 2011. Latitudinal variation in top-down and bottom-up control of a salt marsh food web. Ecology 92:276-281. Supplements.
Marquardt, E. S. and S. C. Pennings. 2011. Diet mixing in a parasitic plant: adaptation or constraint? Plant Ecology 212:69-77.
Ho, C.-K., S. C. Pennings and T. H. Carefoot. 2010. Is diet quality an overlooked mechanism for Bergmann’s Rule? American Naturalist 175:269-276.
Więski, K., H. Guo, C. B. Craft and S. C. Pennings. 2010. Ecosystem functions of tidal fresh, brackish and salt marshes on the Georgia Coast. Estuaries and Coasts 33:161-169.
Pennings, S. C. 2010. Local and geographic variation in Spartina-herbivore interactions. In Ayres, D. R., D. W. Kerr, S. D. Ericson and P. R. Olofson (eds.) Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Invasive Spartina, 2004 Nov 8-10, San Francisco, CA, USA. San Francisco Estuary Invasive Spartina Project of the California State Coastal Conservancy: Oakland, CA.
Marquardt, E. S. and S. C. Pennings. 2010. Constraints on host use by a parasitic plant. Oecologia 164:177-184.
Robinson, J. D., E. Diaz-Ferguson, M. F. Poelchau, S. Pennings, T. D. Bishop, J. Wares. 2010. Multiscale diversity in the marshes of the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems LTER. Estuaries and Coasts 33:865-877.
Pennings, S. C., C.-K. Ho, C. S. Salgado, K. Więski, N. Davé, A. E. Kunza, E. L. Wason. 2009. Latitudinal variation in herbivore pressure in Atlantic Coast salt marshes. Ecology 90:183-195.
Craft, C., J. Clough, J. Ehman, S. Joye, R. Park, S. Pennings, H. Guo, M. Machmuller. 2009. Forecasting the effects of accelerated sea level rise on tidal marsh ecosystem services. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 7:73-78.
Hughes, Z. J., D. M. FitzGerald, C. A. Wilson, S. C. Pennings, K. Więski and A. Mahadevan. 2009. Rapid headward erosion of marsh creeks in response to relative sea level rise. Geophysical Research Letters 36, L03602, doi:10.1029/2008GL036000.
Collins, S. L., K. N. Suding, E. E. Cleland, M. Batty, S. C. Pennings, K. L. Gross, J. B. Grace, L. Gough, J. E. Fargione and C. M. Clark. 2008. Rank clocks and plant community dynamics. Ecology 89:3534-341.
Kunza, A. E. and S. C. Pennings. 2008. Patterns of plant diversity in Georgia and Texas salt marshes. Estuaries and Coasts 31:673-681.
Ho, CK and SC Pennings. 2008. Consequences of omnivory for trophic interactions on a salt-marsh shrub. Ecology 89:1714-1722.
Cleland, E. E., C. M. Clark, S. L. Collins, J. E. Fargione, L. Gough, K. L. Gross, D. G. Milchunas, S. C. Pennings, W. D. Bowman, I. C. Burke, W. K. Lauenroth, G. P. Robertson, J. C. Simpson, D. Tilman, K. N. Suding. 2008. Species responses to nitrogen fertilization in herbaceous plant communities, and associated species traits. Ecology 89:1175.
McFarlin, C. R. J. S. Brewer, T. L. Buck and S. C. Pennings. 2008. Impact of fertilization on a salt marsh food web in Georgia. Estuaries and Coasts 31:313-325.
Wason, E. L. and S. C. Pennings. 2008. Grasshopper (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) species composition and size across latitude in Atlantic Coast salt marshes. Estuaries and Coasts 31:335-343.
Pennings, S. C., Simpson, J. C. 2008. Like herbivores, parasitic plants are limited by host nitrogen content. Plant Ecology 196:245-250.
Clark, C. M., Cleland, E. E., Collins, S. L., Fargione, J. E., Gough L., Gross, K. L., Pennings, S. C., Suding, K. N., Grace, J. B. 2007. Environmental and plant community determinants of species loss following nitrogen enrichment. Ecology Letters 10:596-607.
Pennings, S. C., Zimmer, M., Dias, N., Sprung, M., Davé, N., Ho, C.-K., Kunza, A., McFarlin, C., Mews, M., Pfauder, A., Salgado, C. 2007. Latitudinal variation in plant-herbivore interactions in European salt marshes. Oikos 116:543-549.
Sharitz, R. R., Pennings, S. C. 2006. Development of wetland plant communities. In, Ecology of freshwater and estuarine wetlands, D. P. Batzer and R. R. Sharitz (eds.), University of California Press.
Donovan, D. A., Pennings, S. C., Carefoot, T. H. 2006. Swimming in the sea hare Aplysia brasiliana: cost of transport, parapodial morphometry, and swimming behavior. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 328:76-86.
Pennings, S. C., Silliman, B. R. 2005. Linking biogeography and community ecology: latitudinal variation in plant-herbivore interaction strength. Ecology 86:2310-2319.
Pennings, S. C., Clark, C. M., Cleland. E. E., Collins, S. L., Gough L., Gross, K. L., Milchunas, D. G., Suding, K. N. 2005. Do individual plant species show predictable responses to nitrogen addition across multiple experiments? Oikos 110:547-555.
Salgado, C. S., Pennings, S. C. 2005. Latitudinal variation in palatability of salt-marsh plants: are differences constitutive? Ecology 86:1571-1579.
Richards, C. L., Pennings, S. C., Donovan, L. A. 2005. Habitat range and phenotypic variation in salt marsh plants. Plant Ecology 176:263-273.
Suding, K. N., Collins, S. L., Gough L., Clark, C., Cleland, E. E., Gross, K. L., Milchunas, D. G., Pennings, S. 2005. Functional- and abundance-based mechanisms explain diversity loss due to N fertilization. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A. 102:4387-4392.
Pennings, S. C., Grant, M. B., Bertness, M. D. 2005. Plant zonation in low-latitude salt marshes: disentangling the roles of flooding, salinity and competition. Journal of Ecology 93: 159-167.
Zimmer, M., S. C. Pennings, T. L. Buck, T. H. Carefoot. 2004. Salt marsh litter and detritivores: a closer look at redundancy. Estuaries 27:753-769.
Goranson, C. E., C.-K. Ho, S. C. Pennings. 2004. Environmental gradients and herbivore feeding preferences in coastal salt marshes. Oecologia 140:591-600.
Pennings, S. C., E. R. Selig, L. T. Houser, M. D. Bertness. 2003. Geographic variation in positive and negative interactions among salt marsh plants. Ecology 84:1527-1538.
Callaway, R. M., S. C. Pennings, C. L. Richards. 2003. Phenotypic plasticity and interactions among plants. Ecology 84:1115-1128.
Carefoot, T. H., S. C. Pennings. 2003. Influence of proximal stimuli on swimming in the sea hare Aplysia brasiliana. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 288:223-237.
Buck, T. L., G. A. Breed, S. C. Pennings, M. E. Chase, M. Zimmer, T. H. Carefoot. 2003. Diet choice in an omnivorous salt-marsh crab: different food types, body size and habitat complexity. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 292:103-116.
Pennings, S. C., L. E. Stanton, J. S. Brewer. 2002. Nutrient effects on the composition of salt marsh plant communities along the Atlantic and Gulf coasts of the United States. Estuaries 25:1164-1173.
Siska, E. L., S. C. Pennings, T. L. Buck and M. D. Hanisak. 2002. Latitudinal variation in palatability of saltmarsh plants: which traits are responsible? Ecology 83:3369-3381.
Callaway, R. M., K. O. Reinhart, G. W. Moore, D. J. Moore and S. C. Pennings. 2002. Epiphyte host preferences and host traits: mechanisms for species-specific interactions. Oecologia 132:221-230.
Pennings, S. C. and R. M. Callaway. 2002. Parasitic plants: parallels and contrasts with herbivores. Oecologia 131:479-489.
Zimmer, M., S. C. Pennings, T. L. Buck, T. H. Carefoot. 2002. Species-specific patterns of litter processing by terrestrial isopods (Isopoda: Oniscidea) in high intertidal salt marshes and coastal forests. Functional Ecology 16:596-607.
Zimmer, M., J. P. Danko, S. C. Pennings, A. R. Danford, T. H. Carefoot, A. Ziegler, R. F. Uglow. 2002. Cellulose digestion and phenol oxidation in coastal isopods (Crustacea: Isopoda). Marine Biology 140:1207-1213.
Pennings, S. C., V. D. Wall, D. J. Moore, M. Pattanayek, T. L. Buck and J. J. Alberts. 2002. Assessing salt marsh health: a test of the utility of five potential indicators. Wetlands 22:405-414.
Pennings, S. C., E. L. Siska and M. D. Bertness. 2001. Latitudinal differences in plant palatability in Atlantic coast salt marshes. Ecology 82:1344-1359.
Pennings, S. C. and M. D. Bertness. 2001. Salt marsh communities. In, M. D. Bertness, S. D. Gaines and M. E. Hay (editors), Marine Community Ecology, Sinauer Associates.
Pennings, S. C. and D. J. Moore. 2001. Zonation of shrubs in western Atlantic salt marshes. Oecologia 126:587-594.
Pennings, S. C., S. Nastisch and V. J. Paul. 2001. Vulnerability of sea hares to fish predators: importance of diet and fish species. Coral Reefs 20:320-324.
Callaway, R. M., K. O. Reinhart, S. C. Tucker and S. C. Pennings. 2001. Effects of epiphytic lichens on host preferences of the vascular epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides. Oikos 94:433-441.
Zimmer, M., J. P. Danko, S. C. Pennings, A. R. Danford, A. Ziegler, R. F. Uglow and T. H. Carefoot. 2001. Hepatopancreatic endosymbionts in coastal isopods (Crustacea: Isopoda), and their contribution to digestion. Marine Biology 138: 955-963.
Wall, V. D., J. J. Alberts, D. J. Moore, S. Y. Newell, M. Pattanayek and S. C. Pennings. 2001. The effect of mercury and PCBs on organisms from lower trophic levels of a Georgia saltmarsh. Arch. Env. Cont. Toxicol. 40:10-17.
Bertness, M. D. and S. C. Pennings. 2000. Spatial variation in process and pattern in salt marsh plant communities in eastern North America. In Weinstein, M. P., Kreeger, D. A. (eds) Concepts and controversies in tidal marsh ecology. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.
Callaway, R. M. and S. C. Pennings. 2000. Facilitation may buffer competitive effects: indirect and diffuse interactions among salt marsh plants. American Naturalist 156:416-424.
Pennings, S. C. and R. M. Callaway. 2000. The advantages of clonal integration under different ecological conditions: a community-wide test. Ecology 81: 709-716.
Pennings, S. C., T. H. Carefoot, M. Zimmer, J. P Danko and A. Ziegler. 2000. Feeding preferences of supralittoral isopods and amphipods. Can. J. Zool. 78:1918-1929.
Ziegler, A., T. Grospietsch, T. H. Carefoot, J-P. Danko, M. Zimmer, I. Zerbst-Boroffka and S. C. Pennings. 2000. Hemolymph ion composition and volume changes in the supralittoral isopod Ligia pallasii Brandt, during molt. J. Comp. Physiol. B 170: 329-336.
Carefoot, T. H., J. Wright, S. C. Pennings, A. Ziegler, M. Zimmer, R. F. Uglow, A. Danford and J. P. Danko. 2000. Hemolymph homeostasis in relation to diel feeding activity in the prototypal land isopod, Ligia pallasii. Can. J. Zool. 78: 588-595.
Carefoot, T. H., D. Karentz, S. C. Pennings and C. L. Young. 2000. Distribution of mycosporine-like amino acids in the sea hare Aplysia dactylomela: effect of diet on amounts and types sequestered over time in tissues and spawn. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 126C: 91-104.
Pennings, S. C. and M. D. Bertness. 1999. Using latitudinal variation to examine effects of climate on coastal salt marsh pattern and process. Current Topics in Wetland Biogeochemistry 3: 100-111.
Pennings, S. C., V. J. Paul, D. C. Dunbar, M. T. Hamann, W. A. Lumbang, B. Novack and R. S. Jacobs. 1999. Unpalatable compounds in the marine gastropod Dolabella auricularia: distribution and effect of diet. J. Chem. Ecol. 25: 735-755.
Carefoot, T. H., S. C. Pennings and J. P. Danko. 1999. A test of novel function(s) for the ink of sea hares. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 234: 185-197.
Pennings, S. C. and C. L. Richards. 1998. Effects of wrack burial in salt-stressed habitats: Batis maritima in a Southwest Atlantic salt marsh. Ecography 21:630-638.
Pennings, S. C., T. H. Carefoot, E. L. Siska, M. E. Chase and T. A. Page. 1998. Feeding preferences of a generalist salt marsh crab: relative importance of multiple plant traits. Ecology 79:1968-1979.
Nomann, B. and S. C. Pennings. 1998. Fiddler crab-vegetation interactions in hypersaline habitats. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 225:53-68.
Callaway, R. M. and S. C. Pennings. 1998. Impact of a parasitic plant on the zonation of two salt marsh perennials. Oecologia 114:100-105.
Pennings, S. C., S. R. Pablo and V. J. Paul. 1997. Chemical defenses of the tropical, benthic marine cyanobacterium Hormothamnion enteromorphoides: diverse consumers and synergisms. Limnology and Oceanography 42:911-917.
Pennings, S.C. 1997. Indirect effects on coral reefs. In, C. Birkeland, editor, Life and death of coral reefs. Chapman and Hall.
Pennings, S. C. and R. M. Callaway. 1996. Impact of a parasitic plant on the structure and dynamics of salt marsh vegetation. Ecology 77:1410-1419.
Pennings, S. C. 1996. Testing for synergisms between chemical and mineral defenses. Ecology 77:1948-1950.
Pennings, S. C., A. M. Weiss and V. J. Paul. 1996. Secondary metabolites of the cyanobacterium Microcoleus lyngbyaceus and the sea hare Stylocheilus longicauda: palatability and toxicity. Marine Biology 126:735-743.
Pennings, S. C., M. P. Puglisi, T. J. Pitlik, A. C. Himaya and V. J. Paul. 1996. Effects of secondary metabolites and CaCO3 on feeding by surgeonfishes and parrotfishes: within-plant comparisons. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 134:49-58.
Pennings, S. C. and T. H. Carefoot. 1995. Post-ingestive consequences of consuming secondary metabolites in sea hares (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia). Comparative Biology and Physiology 111C:249-256.
Pennings, S. C., S. R. Pablo, V. J. Paul and J. Emmett Duffy. 1994. Effects of sponge secondary metabolites in different diets on feeding by three groups of consumers. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 180:137-149.
Pennings, S. C. 1994. Interspecific variation in chemical defenses of sea hares. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 180:203-219.
Pennings, S.C., M.T. Nadeau, and V.J. Paul. 1993. Selectivity and Growth of the generalist herbivore Dolabella auricularia feeding upon complementary resources. Ecology 74:879-890.
Pennings, S.C., and V.J. Paul. 1993. Sequestration of algal secondary metabolites by sea hares: location, specificity and dynamics. Marine Biology 117:535-546.
Pennings, S.C., and V.J. Paul. 1993. Secondary chemistry does not limit dietary range of the specialist sea hare Stylocheilus longicauda (Quoy et Gaimard 1824). J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 174:97-113.
Pennings, S.C., and J.M. Svedberg. 1993. Does CaCO3 in food deter feeding by sea urchins? Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 101:163-167.
Pennings, S.C. 1993. Temporal and spatial variation in the recruitment of the sea hare, Aplysia californica, at Santa Catalina Island, CA. In, F. G. Hochberg (ed.) Third California Islands Symposium: Recent Advances in Research on the California Islands. Santa Barbara Museum of Natural History, Santa Barbara CA.
Pennings, S.C., and V. J. Paul. 1993. Within-individual distribution of sequestered secondary metabolites in sea hares. Abstract. Proc. 7th Int. Coral Reef Symp., Guam, 1992. Vol. 2, p. 876.
Pennings, S.C., and V.J. Paul. 1992. Effect of plant toughness, calcification and chemistry on herbivory by Dolabella auricularia. Ecology 73:1606-1619.
Pennings, S.C., and R.M. Callaway. 1992. Salt marsh plant zonation: the relative importance of competition and physical factors. Ecology 73:681-690.
Paul, V.J., and S.C. Pennings. 1991. Diet derived chemical defenses in the sea hare Stylocheilus longicauda (Quoy and Gimard 1824). J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 151:227-243.
Pennings, S.C. 1991. Reproductive behavior of Aplysia californica Cooper: diel patterns, sexual roles and mating aggregations. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 149:249-266.
Pennings, S.C. 1991. Spatial and temporal variation in recruitment of Aplysia californica Cooper: patterns, mechanisms and consequences. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 146:253-274.
Pennings, S.C. 1990. Multiple factors promoting narrow host range in the sea hare, Aplysia californica. Oecologia 82:192-200.
Pennings, S.C. 1990. Size-related shifts in herbivory: specialization in the sea hare, Aplysia californica Cooper. J. Exp. Mar. Biol. Ecol. 142:43-61.
Pennings, S.C. 1990. Predator-prey interactions in opisthobranch gastropods: effects of prey body size and habitat complexity. Mar. Ecol. Prog. Ser. 62:95-101.
Last updated 12/2016